Important regions for bird watching are the Salt mines of Kalloni and Skala Kalloni, Olympos, the Bay of Gera, Prinovouni, Akrasi, around Vatera, Lepetymnos, Agiassos, Sigri, Eressos, Petra, Skala in Polychnitos, Agra, Potamia et al.
Krueper’s Nuthatch (Sitta Krueperi) is one of the rarest species, which has chosen to live only in the pinewoods of the regions of Olympos, Achladeri and Akrasi in the whole of Europe. Cinereous Bunting (Emberiza cineracea) can be traced in Eressos, Olympos and Agra. Other rare species nesting on the island are Rüppell’s Warbler, the Olive-tree Warbler, the Olivaceous Warbler, the Pied Wheatear, the Rufous Bush Robin, the Masked Shrike, the Sombre Tit, the Rock Nuthatch, the Cretzschmar’s Bunting, the Long-legged Buzzard, the Accipiter, the Alectoris chukar. The Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) is rare in Greece and nests in the area of Achladeri. Also on the island we find few pairs of Black Storks (Ciconia nigra).
On Lesvos there are also White Storks (Ciconia ciconia). Rare aquatic birds nest in the Bay of Kalloni, such as the Black-winged Stilt, the pied avocet, the Stone Curlew, the Little Bittern, the king fisher, the Collared Pratincole, the Marsh harrier, the Common Tern, the Little Tern, etc.
As for more ordinary birds, Lesvos hosts blackbirds, thrushes and starlings in the olive groves, as well as robins, Chaffinches, Great Tits, skylarks, wrens, woodpeckers, Blackcaps and, in the summer, Wheatears. More rarely one might encounter the Sardinian Warbler (Sylvia melanocerhala exclusively in the olive groves), the Sylvia olivetorum and in recent years the wren. In the mountain olive groves we hear the Alectoris chukar, the voice of the cuckoo and the song of the nightingale in the plane clusters. The Hoopoe nest in olive tree cavities, while in dry branches we come across the small Dunnock (Prunellamodularis). During the winter the wood cock and two species of Thrush, the Fieldfare and the Redwing, visit the island, whereas the Eurasian Eagle Owl is giving way to the Long-eared Owl.
An impressive group of insects with a diverse variety of species that inhabit Lesvos are the dragonflies. (order Odanata). The research is still in progress but 45 different species have already been spotted on the island. These dragonflies seem to be members of the prehistoric family of giant dragonflies, the first insects to become avian.
Finally, it is worth mentioning that more than 500 species of bees live on Lesvos. The list is constantly growing as research progresses. This impressive variety of bees is, of course, related to the huge range of plant and habitat variety of the island.